(music) (narrator) Fish farming is a branch of zootechnics, its purpose being the rearing of fish. The specifics, in relation to the general activity of fishing, lies precisely in the fact that in fish farming, the development of fish is done with the intervention, knowledge and action of man, especially with that relating to genetic improvement, incubation, artificial reproduction of fish, diet, health, among others. (music) Fish farming can be classified according to production, the extent of management and technology and whether it’s applied as: extensive, semi-intensive, and super intensive. (music) Depending on the quantity of species found in the crop, such as mono-cultures, if we’re dealing with only one species, or policultures, when there are two or more species, or if another fish farming activity is applied,
then we’re talking about integrated cultivation. (narrator) There are three ways of producing fish according to the installations, which are: land-based ponds, cement tanks, and water cages. (music) Now we’re going to visit Mr. Ángel Arboleda, who will tell us about his experience with the cultivation of tilapia and cachama. (music) We find ourselves at a fish farm, where we manage 2 types of fish; cachama and tilapia. (music) We have 20 different tanks of different diameters, and we count with 1,800 cubic meters of water. (music) Well, here we manage different levels of tanks. For example, the tanks housing the alevins are of approximately 40 to 50 centimeters. Why? So that the temperature of the water may rise, and also to be able to select them easily. Once the fingerlings are in tanks, they next go into ones that are approximately 60 to 70 centimeters high. (music) Spawning adults are placed in tanks that are 80 to 90 centimeters high, and the fatter adult fish are placed in tanks that are 1 meter to 1.10 meters tall, where they will be able to have more oxygen. One must take into account the fact that the more fish there are in a tank, the bigger the diameter and the more oxygen it should have. (narrator) The fish farming here uses clean water from the farm itself, which counts with the correct pH and temperature. (music) It is very important to change the water. Why? So the water doesn’t remain stagnant, but has instead a rotation. When it rotates it produces oxygen and it also prevents bacteria from attacking the water. That’s when the problems arise with fungi, when the water has been still too long. The bacteria and the fungi come and attack the fish, therefore it’s important to keep in mind to change the water. (narrator) The tanks at this fish farm are made out of cement. This is done with the objective of maintaining an excellent quality of fish, fish that aren’t able to feed from the mud but only from the commercial concentrate that is fed them. (music) Alevins Here is where we first introduce the alevins. It is important to keep the tanks in adequate conditions, properly matured, and with water that has been well prepared so that when the alevins come, they are able to find larvae from which they can feed. That’s where they’ll start eating from, because they won’t be able to eat the grain feed at this stage.
Instead, they will start with the larvae the tank produced at the time it was fertilized. (music) (narrator) The process of alevin rearing must be carried out with care, and in the following way; when the egg arrives, it must acclimatize to the water in the tank and then you add sea salt. This helps fight bacteria and relaxes the fish. (music) It is very important to keep in mind that these alevins must possess the correct water temperature. Why? Because the water temperature required for fish in the fattening stage, or required for the fingerlings, is different to that of the alevins’, because they’re more delicate and need the right temperature, one that doesn’t go below the average of 35 to 38ºC. (music) (narrator) The alevins’ diet must be very balanced and the concentrate given very fine, since at this stage the fish are very small. (music) The tanks shouldn’t be too deep, so that the water can warm up. If the water is warm, the end result of the fish is better, it will perform better and grow faster. (music) The quality of the egg is very important. Why the quality of the egg?
Because if we have a good egg.. the product will perform better, have a better size, and the fish will be of a good color, helping us at market. If the fish is of a good color, say, a very red tilapia, then it will be more pleasant in the eyes of the market. If, on the other hand, the tilapia is white, pale, then it won’t be very well liked at the market. That’s why the harvest of the fish is very important. (music) Fingerlings After the alevins come the fingerlings. The fingerlings are logically bigger than the alevins, since they are bigger and heavier. For example, it’s very important to have the cachama mixed in with the tilapia, but only a percentage. For example, if we have 100 tilapias then we should have around 20 to 15 cachamas give or take. Why? Because at the time of feeding, the tilapias go to the top to consume the grain, and those that aren’t consumed fall to the bottom where the cachama then comes and picks it up, therefore no food is wasted. (music) If we have 100 cachamas then we shouldn’t have 100 tilapias, on the contrary, if we have 100 tilapias then we can have some 20 cachamas, since they grow so much, therefore eating more food than the others, which are smaller. Rearing (narrator) Feeding for this size fish must follow the correct schedule, which also depends on the grams weighed. Fattening Well, here we are with the fish in the fattening stage. The food given these fish, for example, is very different to the diet given the alevins and the fingerlings. This size fish you have to give a certain food, concentrate, which contains 30% protein. This 30% is especially for this size. (music) Here are the fish in the fattening stage. These tanks are deeper, contain more water, oxygen, and a more abundant stream of water, since more mass requires more water, more depth, and it is very important to keep that in mind. (music) The feeding for the fish in the fattening stage is important, because when the fish are at this size, they tend to weigh 500, 600, 700 grams. You have to balance their diet and give them 20 to 25% of protein. (music) (narrator) The conditions of fish kept in captivity are very different from those of their regular habitat, and as production is intensified, the alterations in the environment increase, enabling the appearance of diseases. For this reason, it’s necessary to have adequate knowledge of the environmental conditions of the aquatic environment of the species in question, as well as the possible infectious agents that could attack the fish. (music) (man) At 16 weeks we’re taking out the cachama at 700 or 800 grams, with a very good fillet. For example, the tilapia is very commercial, tasty, but it takes long to fatten up. For example, at 15 or 20 weeks you are at the rearing phase, and once you approach the 25th or 27th week, it’s at a size or weight of 700 to 800 grams. (music) Fish is commercialized here in the region. It’s in high demand, since people know that due to its cultivation in cement tanks, where the waters are clean and taken care of, the taste is exquisite and different to the taste of other fish. (music) We hope that you have learned much about the cultivation of the cachama and tilapia. Until next time.